ACL2019: Exploiting Entity BIO Tag Embeddings and Multi-task Learning for Relation Extraction with Imbalanced Data

Published in The 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL2019), 2019


In practical scenario, relation extraction needs to first identify entity pairs that have relation and then assign a correct relation class. However, the number of non-relation entity pairs in context (negative instances) usually far exceeds the others (positive instances), which negatively affects a model’s performance. To mitigate this problem, we propose a multi-task architecture which jointly trains a model to perform relation identifification with cross entropy loss and relation classifification with ranking loss. Meanwhile, we observe that a sentence may have multiple entities and relation mentions, and the patterns in which the entities appear in a sentence may contain useful semantic information that can be utilized to distinguish between positive and negative instances. Thus we further incorporate the embeddings of character-wise/word-wise BIO tag from the named entity recognition task into character/word embeddings to enrich the input representation. Experiment results show that our proposed approach can signifificantly improve the performance of a baseline model with more than 10% absolute increase in F1-score, and outperform the state-of-the-art models on ACE 2005 Chinese and English corpus. Moreover, BIO tag embeddings are particularly effective and can be used to improve other models as well.

Authors : Wei Ye^, Bo Li^, Rui Xie, Zhonghao Sheng, Long Chen and Shikun Zhang. (^indicates co-first author)

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